Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs <p><strong>Wisdom Journal For Studies &amp; Research (WJFSAR)</strong> is an international scientific journal specializing in the humanities, social sciences, and literature. It is a refereed journal, issued by the University and the Institute of Justice and Wisdom in the United States of America.</p> <p><strong> ISSN print/ 2769-1926 ISSN online/ 2769-1934</strong></p> <p>It aims to present diverse and emerging ideas and issues within its specialization. It is published 4 times a year (March-June-September). -December), publishes research in Arabic, English and French, and also publishes works completed within the framework of research projects and international conferences, and it is supervised by the competent scientific body.</p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="3">Note that the research of this journal holds the <strong>DOI CROSSREF Digital Object Identifier, it is classified in Google Scholar,</strong>as it allows</span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3"> open and direct access to</span></span> <span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="3"> its contents from the principle of making scientific research available free to the public from the journal's website, and it has a LOCKSS license and a CLOCKSS license</span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3">To store and distribute Journal content.</span></span></p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3">The journal is also based on the Open Journal Systems (OJS), an open source software application for scholarly journals, which is used by more than 25,000 worldwide. Open access can increase a journal's readership and contribute to the global public good</span></span></p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3">The journal ensures the authenticity of research and the detection of irregularities through the use of scientific inference detection software <strong>Turnitin</strong></span></span></p> <p>The refereed international scientific journal is published 4 times a year regularly according to a fixed schedule, <span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="1">In addition to 4 issues of conferences and scientific events supposed per year.</span></span></p> <p><strong>Fixed schedule for issuing regular magazine issues in each annual volume</strong></p> <table width="335"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>Publishing month</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p><strong>N</strong><strong>umber</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>month 03</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p>number 01</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>month 06</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p>number 02</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>month 09</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p>number 03</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>month 12</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p>number 04</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> جامعة ومعهد العدالة والحكمة University and Institute Of Justice and Wisdom en-US Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2769-1926 Difficulties of qualitative research from the point of view of academics working in Palestinian universities https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/238 <p>This study aimed to identify the extent of the application of qualitative research from the point of view of academics working in Palestinian universities, And research on the factors that encourage Palestinian researchers or limit their production in qualitative research in the three Palestinian universities, namely: An-Najah University, Palestine Polytechnic University (Kadoorie), and Al-Quds University.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;To achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers used a qualitative scale prepared by them, where the scale contains (11) open questions about stimuli and contraindications. And the challenges and difficulties that accompany the work of the researcher using the qualitative method, and the scale contained two axes: The general information axis contains the name of the university, the scientific rank and the gender of the academic, and the second axis contains (11) open-ended questions that do not give the researcher the opportunity to talk and express comfortably. The study sample consisted of (35) researchers, who hold a doctorate degree and work as academics in Palestinian universities. The two researchers used the qualitative analysis method (Braun &amp; Clarke, 2006). One of the most important findings of the study is that the reason for the reluctance of researchers to qualitative research revolves around: the difficulty of data analysis, Misguided research production When upgraded, qualitative research, despite its difficulty, is equal to quantitative research. The respondents recommended that there be a different appreciation of qualitative research in order to motivate researchers to do it, and the study also recommended holding training on the skill of analyzing academic qualitative research in Palestinian universities.</p> عامر شحاده شحاده انوار ابو هنود Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 25 45 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.238 The Industrialisation of Academic Expatriate Homogeneity:" The Trigger Formula of Harassment" https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/245 <p>A personalised authoritarian system, politicisation, and academic dogmatism are common premises in sociological thought that delineate the space of abstract but concrete academic knowledge in monitoring those challenges and issues that crystallise the identity of the Arab university system. The implicit missions of this paper, entitled "The Industrialisation of Academic Alienation", do not lie in a semantic capitalisation based on a nihilistic hardening cell that places us, as a research group, outside the shell of the epistemological context, but rather Rather, it is constitutive of the question of exception and discomfort for the dominant nerve that hides the worn-out and falsely moving reality with an ideological veil that carries the banner of digitalisation and pioneering policy. Far from westernising the concept of exploitation and academic harassment and excluding it as a context for academic circulation, we try to disclose and reimagine Algerian academic life in particular, in which the academic plays the roles of vulnerability "cynical, silent, and committed expatriate".</p> ismahane beloum مليكة عرعور Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 46 67 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.245 Applied pragmatics and discourse analysis methods ,an interdisciplinary approach to forms of presence and Application prospects https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/236 <p>Pragmatism proves its ability to adapt renewedly to the nature of linguistic, social and cognitive issues, embodying through its openness the dimensions of encyclopedic linguistics in its social goal, and adapting positively to the claim of being the trash of linguistics. In this context, this paper attempts to highlight new aspects of the intervention of pragmatics in new cognitive systems. In the Department of Arabic Linguistic Research.</p> <p> What are the most prominent features of this reception? What is the value of its theoretical and methodological presence in view of the developments in research on issues of the Arabic language in terms of situation, use, acquisition and education?What are the most prominent signs of innovation in pragmatic, applied-oriented Arabic linguistic writing?How can its theories be invested in critical discourse analysis, discourse studies, conversation analysis, advertising, narrative studies, and linguistic policy analysis? What is the concept of applied pragmatics in light of critical applied linguistics and specialist collaboration?</p> naaman bouguerra Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 68 92 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.236 Counterfactual mental spaces in Emmanuel Macron’s political discourse https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/259 <p>In political discourse, politicians often seek to convey their opinions or ideologies through the faculty of language. This faculty manifests itself through the use of linguistic units which are actualized in a speech.</p> <p>According to cognitive linguistics, they introduce mental spaces, referring to the cognition of the speaking subject. Among the cognitive theories that have dealt with the cognitive aspects of discourse, we cite Gilles Fauconnier's theory of mental spaces (1984). This linguist placed emphasis on the construction of mental spaces in speech and through linguistic units which are space introducers. These spaces can be counterfactual as well as in political discourse. This is a speech of promise, par excellence, in which there are several hypothetical and counterfactual mental representations.</p> <p>And to be close to current events, we chose to study the counterfactual mental spaces introduced in Emmanuel Macron's speech by adopting a cognitive approach.</p> Marwa Ammari Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 93 105 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.259 Inverted classroom .learning and its role in increasing Educational attainment Field study ,Department of sociology university of m’sila https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/241 <p><sup> </sup></p> <p><strong>Abstract: </strong></p> <p> This study aimed to reveal the contribution of flipped classroom learning in increasing the educational attainment of students of sociology at the University of Mohamed Boudiaf in M’sila, where we adopted the descriptive method and used a questionnaire tool to collect data and information to achieve the objectives of the study.</p> <p> The population of this study was represented in the third year students of Sociology, the sample was selected randomly , we distributing 120 questionnaires to students who continuously prohibit applications in the standards of governance and personal and professional project, during the first and second semesters of the academic year 2021/2022. A random sample of 73 students was selected. After analyzing the questionnaires using SPSS, the results of the study showed that inverted classroom learning contributes to increasing the scientific achievement of sociology students at Mohamed Boudiaf University in M'sila. In this light, a number of suggestions were presented, the most important of which is urging teachers to work through flipped classroom .because of its benefit to him and to students. - With the encouragement of the university to work learning through the inverted class through the development of strategies and devices to follow it.</p> wahiba zellagui ibtissam tebani oumkelthoum bakhti Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 106 127 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.241 Investing the Mother Tongue in Teaching Arabic. The Content of Rhetoric in The First Year Middle School as (a Case Study) a Model. https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/237 <p>This research paper aims to discuss the investment of the mother tongue in teaching Arabic, especially in teaching the rhetoric, which is a new element for the students of first year middle school. It examines the effectiveness of this approach in enhancing the understanding and comprehension of students regarding various rhetorical techniques. This approach allows the teacher to connect students to their linguistic reality and motivates them to engage in learning.</p> <p>The study concludes that the mother tongue contains structural patterns that align with Arabic rhetoric, as evident in our popular proverbs. Incorporating these proverbs in teaching rhetoric content creates an interactive and enjoyable learning environment, effectively eliminating boredom and transforming students into active participants in the educational process.</p> وردية عزوز Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 128 150 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.237 Fonctions et tâches des conseillers d'orientation et de l'orientation scolaire et professionnelle https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/228 <p>Guidance counselors and school and vocational guidance play a vital role in achieving the goals of the educational system, so this study aimed in its theoretical aspect to diagnose their effective role by highlighting their tasks, their relationships and methods of dealing with various partners, especially with learners, then introducing various professional documents and records necessary for their work with showing the professional abilities and competencies to be they document their various activities in records and several personal and professional qualities must be present The results of the interview were that the consultants suffer from material difficulties and a lot of administrative work, which makes it difficult to psychologically take care of the learners, ambiguity in the ministerial publications that define their tasks accurately and record a lack of training, especially the consultants of the southern regions compared to the northern due to the distance between educational institutions and the lack of friction with colleagues.</p> سيدي محمد بوجنان أمال هاشم لدميلة روند شلابي Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 151 171 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.228 Reading Skill in Arabic Language Teaching Applications for Speakers of Other Languages (AlifBee as an Example) https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/222 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>Reading skill is one of the main elements in building a solid language foundation and gaining a deep understanding of culture. With the development of technology and the speed of life، it has become necessary for students to utilize the latest technology gadgets، especially mobile phones and computers.</p> <p>The modern teacher must integrate these means into the educational process to achieve the greatest possible benefit. ; hence، the importance of smart applications in teaching language skills has become more critical than ever.</p> <p>This research tracks the way smart applications address the reading skills of Arabic language learners who are non-native speakers.</p> <p>This research includes an introduction، three sections، and a conclusion.</p> <p>The introduction reveals the importance of the topic، its problems، questions، and methodology.</p> <p>The first section discussed the concept of reading and its importance، while the second section explained reading skill teaching methods and how to implement them in smart applications. The third section presents an accurate analysis of the content of the AlifBee application and its methodology in teaching reading skills، and in conclusion، includes the research results and recommendations.</p> <p>One of the most important research results is that most smart applications currently available today need more scientific and experimental foundations in teaching reading skills. Therefore، their impact doesn't reach the desired level، while the AlifBee application distinguishes itself by its reliance on clear scientific and methodological foundations in presenting information and the method of testing the learner</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Arabic language، Self learning، Reading Skill، AlifBee application</p> عمر حمودة Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 172 194 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.222 Construction of an individual response theory collection test for a quality Algerian calendar system - Mathematical subjects model. https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/265 <p>This study aims to build an achievement test of the reference-creterian type, to diagnose the competence in organizing data one of the fields of mathematics, among learners in the second year of middle school. The Rasch model was used to analyze and grade )08( test items.The test was applied to a reconnaissance sample and then to a basic sample Size)250(learners.The results of the analysis showed that the test has evidence of validity and reliability,and that the grading results maintained the number of items and individuals.The test items covered the difficulty range well.and the cut-off score was determined by following the Angoff judging method where it was estimated by a percentage 55%, which is a very reasonable percentage, It can be trusted in classifying learners into two categories, one proficient and the other non-proficient</p> mahdia dahmani Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 195 219 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.265 Effectiveness of a training program based on the digital competence approach in developing mobile learning skills among social studies teachers https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/212 <p>This research examined a digital literacy training program designed to improve mobile teaching skills in social studies teachers. Key training needs were assessed through a questionnaire, resulting in five areas chosen by teachers: presentations, web integration, email, blogging, and data projectors. The program, incorporating 45 sub-skills, was developed based on existing research. Using cognitive and observational assessments, the program's effectiveness was tested on 30 Karbala secondary school teachers. Analysis showed a statistically significant improvement in both cognitive knowledge and practical skills, demonstrating the program's success in boosting mobile teaching abilities.</p> اسعد حمود عبد الله احمد باقر عبد الكريم الطباطبائي Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 220 237 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.212 The Importance Of Ergonomics Applications In Multigrade Classrooms’ Space https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/239 <p>Abstract: Researchers argue that managing multigrade classrooms presents significant challenges compared to single-level classrooms. Effective learning within these classrooms requires tight organization in various dimensions, including preparing shared spaces, arranging equipment and educational aids, and ensuring proper use. The process of building learning and competencies, following up on learning, and deepening knowledge requires utilizing space in line with the educational process. Both learners and professors must embody school ergonomics as an applied science in multigrade classrooms through specific indicators to ensure quality performance and outcomes. This involves incorporating school ergonomics into the classroom space to ensure the quality of performance and outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp; <strong>Keywords : </strong>Ergonomia&nbsp;; Classroom; Multigrade Classrooms&nbsp;; Space</p> صباح زعاف Djenidi Rouag Abla Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 238 246 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.239 The role of the Jordanian family in consolidating the cultural identity of their children in light of the spread of social media from the point of view of secondary school teachers in Jordanian public schools https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/226 <p>The current study aims to understand the role of the Jordanian family in consolidating the cultural identity of its children, especially in light of the spread of social media, and to identify the positive and negative effects of social media, reveal the role of the family in directing the use of social media, and know the challenges facing the family in raising children. Its children in light of digital means. The researchers followed the qualitative analytical approach, using a restricted interview tool. The sample consists of (20) male and female secondary school teachers in Jordanian public schools in the university district, to understand their opinions and experiences in dealing with their students and the impact of social media on the formation of their cultural identity. Interviews were conducted with them during the academic year (2023-2024 AD), and the questions of the current study were answered by analyzing the data using the steps of qualitative research analysis and summarizing the results to reveal the main trends and provide effective recommendations to enhance the role of the family in consolidating the cultural identity of young people in Jordan.</p> hala alsalahat arwa Al ma’aitah Laith Al-Zawahreh Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 247 271 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.226 Virtual Education: Between Keeping Pace with Reality and Achieving Quality: A Theoretical Study on Parallel Virtual Learning Platforms: What Role and What Change do; Social Media Sites Play? https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/248 <p>This research paper aims to highlight the role of internet platforms in the educational process, or what has become known as virtual education, especially since its widespread use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, social media platforms have become powerful and effective tools in serving virtual education.</p> <p>Therefore, this study sheds light on the most prominent positives, contributions, and even drawbacks associated with the use of social media platforms in the educational process. It also aims to identify various platforms available on the internet that have been utilized for educational purposes in various forms, whether academic education, skills training, or governmental education. The virtual school has thus become an essential and fruitful institution, allowing for discussion about the benefits and investment in digital technology in education.</p> youssouf Belabbes Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 272 298 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.248 The level of readability of the texts in the third year primary textbooks by adopting thecloze test. https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/258 <p>This research paper aims to reveal the level of readability in the school environment, by measuring the readability of the text when primary school learners, and the tools for measuring readability vary from tests, forms, etc., and the closure test or Claus, as it is called, is one of these approved tests, which I chose in measuring the readability of the text "Zuhair circumcision" for the third year of primary school, trying to answer the following problem:&nbsp; Is this text appropriate for the age stage for which it is presented? And which of the three levels of the lock-in test does this text achieve?</p> آمنة شنتوف Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 299 308 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.258 The meaning of learning between teacher and student https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/261 <p>The researcher is concered with studying the meaning of learning for the teacher and the student. In nthe first stage, we sought tonexplore the teacher(s perceptions of learning and the methods they adopt to facilitate the learning of their students, and in a second stage we sought to determine the meaning of learning for the students and the difficulties they encounter in this process. Then we moved on to formulating practical proposals to facilitate student's learning based on relevant literature.</p> Faten Hamdi Adel HAMDI Boubakker BEN ABEDKRIM Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 309 327 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.261 citizenship education https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/251 <p> </p> <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p> Citizenship is considered one of the acquisitions that every member of society must enjoy as a part of his life. For this reason alone, the subject of citizenship education is one of the current intellectual topics. It is also considered part of the socio-cultural educational philosophy, as it aims to develop awareness of rights and responsibilities, whether individual or group, in addition to training in its practice.</p> <p> Citizenship education also seeks to form a human being who is a citizen who works for the development of his country towards progress and development. Citizenship edcation involves developing knowledge, skills and confidence so that individuals can take responsibility for their own decisions. This topic has become important in many countries around the world in general and countries around the world. Arabic in particular.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Education, citizenship, citizen, citizenship education, society</p> أم السعد سالمي هبة الله ذهابة Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 328 342 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.251 The Environment Between The Sense Of Citizenship And Official Organization https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/227 <p>A marginal culture that is sweeping along the urban geography in a disturbing manner. It is a product of the negative behaviors that we see in society and the absence of a sense of citizenship among individuals. It is not possible to improve the environmental situation of any society through political decisions and procedures, if there are no citizens who are imbued with love of country and belonging and who possess environmental awareness and behavior stemming from a sense of responsibility towards their country in the first place, meaning that individuals within their societies possess a high sense of patriotism that is translated into civilized behaviors that affect the environment.</p> <p>This is the position that calls the latter to environmental sociological studies within a comprehensive vision and approach, especially after development and the environment have emerged as an issue of man, society and culture, in an intermingling governed by spontaneity and life necessity. This is what we will discuss in this research paper.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> فريد موسلي Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 343 352 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.227 The role of civil society organizations in local community development )Field research applied to some NGOs operating within the city of Tripoli( https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/256 <p>Summary:</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This topic has been studied due to its importance within society, especially the role of civil society associations in developing the local community, as they are among the government institutions that have an effective role in community development and carry out their work at the current stage through the system of laws and legislation that have come to control the organization of society, where volunteer work in associations is needed. And non-governmental institutions for specialized professional efforts to support coordination efforts between its various institutions to confront challenges and support development and reform policy in society. The research aims to identify the reality of civil society associations within the framework of a set of dimensions, including: the activities and services of the association - the nature of the goals - to be achieved - sources of funding. Work strategy and policy in light of the societal events and changes that the local community is going through We reached a set of results related to the activity of civil society organizations, the priorities of their interests, and the most important difficulties they face. The research also clarified a set of foundations for activating their role, including legitimacy, clarity of goals, planning community projects, transparency, and integration with other sectors of society. It also clarified the areas that contribute to the method of organizing Community to activate the role of associations in developing the local community.</p> د.زهرة منصور التكماك التكماك د. حورية عثمان صوة صوة Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 353 365 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.256 Basic standards for the origin and development of science Arabic and Islamic https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/224 <p>There are many standards that our Arab and Muslim scholars followed, which had an effective role in the development and spread of science among them is their love for learning, the availability of appropriate capabilities, and the caliphs, support for the scientific movement by establishing scientific councils, building educational institutions, supporting translation and transportation, and providing all means such as papermaking and copying books, which contributed to the flourishing of the scientific movement among Arabs and Muslims l will address these criteria in three sections</p> <p>1-scientific Muslims. For Arabs and Muslims</p> <p>2-the role of the caliphs in supporting and providing these standards</p> <p>3-the role of these standards in the development of science, the science of surgery as a model</p> <p>My goal in this study is to show Arab and Muslim scientists who are effective in enriching science with evidence that Islamic origins development it has witnessed l will follow the historical- analytical narrative method to narrate and analyze the events, to emphasize through them the role of Arabs and Muslims in the emergence and development of science.&nbsp;</p> دلال الفيتوري Reem Al-Shalmani Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 366 381 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.224 Contemporary Algerian Scholars and Their Contributions in Islamic Sciences: “Sheikh Mohammed Bay Boulalam as a Model” https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/254 <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>This study, titled 'Contemporary Algerian Scholars and Their Contributions in Islamic Sciences: Sheikh Mohammed Bay Boulalam as a Model,' aims to shed light on the role of contemporary Algerian scholars in serving and enriching the field of Islamic sciences. The study addresses two main topics, with the first part focusing on exploring the concept of Ijtihad (independent reasoning) in Islamic sciences, including its nature, rulings, and the conditions related to the Mujtahid (scholar engaging in Ijtihad). The second part seeks to enhance knowledge about the life and contributions of the prominent Algerian scholar, Mohammed Bay Boulalam. This section specifically examines the scholarly endeavors he made in the service of Islamic sciences.</p> <p> This study serves as an attempt to understand and highlight the significant contributions made by Algerian scholars in developing religious concepts and promoting the scientific understanding of Islamic sciences. The findings include the recognition that Algeria is rich in dedicated scholars in Islamic sciences, among whom Sheikh Mohammed Bay Boulalam stands out as a scholar deserving of learning from and engaging in the study of his scientific heritage.</p> Oussma Thabet Sekhri Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 382 401 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.254 Foundations of text criticism in hadith commentaries: Ibn Raslan’s explanation of Sunan Abu Dawud as an example https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/219 <p>Criticism is the way to the development of science, and Muslims, especially the commentators and hadith scholars, have paid great attention to criticism, in order to determine the authenticity of the hadith in terms of the chain of transmission and the text. Criticism must be based on reliable scientific foundations in order for it to be correct criticism. In this research, criticism will be highlighted. The foundations of text criticism were established by one of the commentators of the ninth century AH, the commentator Ibn Raslan, through his explanation of Sunan Abu Dawud. This research has been divided into three axes as follows:</p> <p>Keywords:</p> <p>Foundations, criticism, text, Ibn Raslan, explanation, Sunan, Abi Dawud</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmed Aaider Ali Ali NihadKhalil Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 402 414 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.219 Usury and the reason for its prohibition in Islam. https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/250 <p>This research aims to explain the meaning of usury, its divisions, and the evidence for its prohibition from the Qur’an and Sunnah. It is organكلized into an introduction and two sections. The first section was divided into three topics, and the second section was divided into two topics. The first section came under the title of defining usury in language, terminology, its sections, and evidence for the prohibition of usury from the Qur’an and Sunnah. The first topic was the definition of usury. Language, terminology, and its sections. The second topic is entitled Evidence for the Prohibition of Usury from the Qur’an and Sunnah. The third topic is entitled The Reason for Prohibiting Usury in Islam. The second topic is entitled The Philosophers’ View of Usury, Usury, and Interest, which complicated the requirement.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The first is entitled The Philosophers’ View of Usury, and the second is entitled Usury and Interest, a conclusion, and a list of sources. The descriptive approach and the incomplete induction</p> soha Salm Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 415 434 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.250 The Historical Reasons for the Fatimids' Migration from ifriqiya to Egypt https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/221 <p>The Fatimids attempted to achieve their political project of assuming the Islamic Caliphate by establishing their own state in the western Islamic world before returning to the East and fulfilling the dream of the Caliphate. They chose Ifriqiya as the base for this project, and after strengthening their state in the Maghreb, they worked towards conquering Egypt and relocating their capital there as a first step towards achieving their desired goal. In this regard, this study examines the historical reasons and motivations that led the Fatimids to migrate from Ifriqiya to Egypt, as well as the factors that facilitated their transition.</p> Abdelali EL Mebtoul Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 435 448 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.221 The role of heritage and tourism in achieving sustainable development in Algeria https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/253 <p>This study aims to introduce the tangible and intangible cultural heritage, as the tangible and intangible heritage is one of the components of increasing social cohesion, belonging, and the national cultural identity of any country. A nation that is proud of its heritage and antiquities. These accumulated individual and collective legacies, such as poetry, handicrafts, and antiquities, are an essential part of the components of the history, present, and current future of that nation. Tangible and intangible heritage has a significant impact on development programs. Development programs in a society are greatly influenced by the nature of heritage, and any plans that do not take into account such a dimension must end in a dead end and with limited results.</p> belkacem Amadj Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 449 456 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.253 Practical and eco-friendly suggestions for eliminating insects in manuscripts cabinets https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/246 <p>َAbstract:</p> <p>This article aims to propose suggestions for manuscripts cabinets that face difficulties in controling insect infestations, due to lack of experience and material resources&nbsp;; and for this reason, we have chosen two practical methods that are safe and useful in these circumstances to exterminate insects and get rid of their damage to manuscript cabinets.</p> <p>These suggestions deal on anoxia and freezing processes as alternatives solutions being practiccal and eco-friendly methods in eliminating insects infestation than the chemicals ones; and thus, showing how effective they are, and how to apply them, explaining the mechanism of biological destruction of insects by these two methods, and mentioning the types and requirements they need.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> asma karima djamila boussedi fatima benchaba Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 457 476 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.246 بين البحث العلمي والبحث الفني: رهانات حول تنظير الممارسات الفنية https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/233 <p> </p> <p>في هذا البحث سنلقي الضوء على اشكالية بين مفهومي البحث العلمي والفني،بين نظرية الفن والممارسات الفنية،وبين المسار العلمي والمسار الفني في بعض الممارسات الفنية المعاصرة التي تنطوي على العلوم (مثل فن النانو والفن البيولوجي). سوف نتسائل كيف يمكن ان يكون التفكير في الاعمال الفنيى من الجانب النظري (اخذين بعين الاعتبار الخلفيات الفنية والعلمية) طريقة ابداعية في البحث في مجال الفن؟ كيف يمكننا ان ندرس ونتعمق في قراءة الاعمال الفنية التي تجمع بين البحث العلمي والبحث الفني ؟ كيف يمكننا ان نمارس العملية التنظيرية التي تحاول تقديم قراءات للمارسات الفنية التي تربط الفن والعلم؟ يعتبر ظهور مخابر بحثية تهتم وترعى الفنانين والعلماء الذين يشتغلون معا من اجل انتاج اعمال فنية تخضع الى ظوابط المخبر والوسائل المخبرية نقطة تحول في العملية التنظيرية ليصبح مفهوم البحث رهانا سواءا كان البحث العلمي او البحث الفني.</p> Imen El BEDOUI Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 477 493 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.233 Political Science in Algeria: "Reality and Challenges" https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/234 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> The central role of the state as a unit of analysis in political phenomena has significantly contributed to the widespread interest in teaching political science and international relations across the world. The prominent position of the United States and Europe in the world today is evidence of the optimal utilization of scientific curricula and theories related to state affairs, reflecting their increased focus on developing research fields in this discipline. This has allowed for the use of speculative studies and rigorous analysis to pre-determine outcomes of domestic and international state issues, leading to the diversification and enhanced competitiveness of this field within the scientific community. In contrast, despite being taught in their universities and research centers, third world countries show a lack of scholarly and elite production in this field, contributing to the weak interpretation of political phenomena surrounding state entities in the third world, such as state fragility and the crises they face. Similarly, we will explore the Algerian government's interest in teaching political science and its branches, the extent of its development in research centres and universities, and its contribution to supporting the work of state institutions.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: <strong>Political science, international relations, political phenomenon, political foresight, Algeria</strong></p> djilali adda Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 494 512 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.234 Administrative penalties for protecting the air https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/266 <p>The deterioration of the environment in general has increased in recent years And the air is part of this environment that has been affected by pollution ,and since the air is an essential part that cannot be dispensed with and has an impact on all living beings, including the human race, we will seek to shed&nbsp; light in this research on the administrative regulatory authorities concernad with protecting the air from the pollution that occurs .</p> <p>We will also address the administrative penalties concerned with that in an attempt to limit the pollution spread in the air</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> ليان حازم سعيد Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 513 531 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.266 The impact of social capital on company social performance in Iraq: The employees’ perspective https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/220 <p>The aim of the research is to demonstrate the impact of social capital with its combined dimensions (enhancing confidence among employees, establishing social ties between employees) on the social performance of the company. To achieve the research objectives, a questionnaire was designed through Google form consisting of (21) paragraphs to collect primary data from the random study sample. The respondents were 92 individuals working in (Al-Binaa) Company for Manufacturing Thermos tone and Reinforced Panels Limited/Iraq. In light of this, data was collected, analyzed, and hypotheses were tested using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS V.23) program and several statistical methods, including multiple linear regression analysis. The study concluded that A number of results: There is a statistically significant effect of social capital with its combined dimensions on the company’s social performance at a significance level of 0.01. There is a statistically significant positive correlation for social capital with its combined dimensions on the company’s social performance at a significance level of 0.01, and in light of the results that the research reached. The researchers recommended a number of recommendations for the purpose of developing the company’s social performance towards society and workers, the most important of which is providing a work environment that encourages achieving a healthy balance between work and personal life for employees, integrating social capital into the company’s strategy more for the purpose of developing its performance towards society, and giving the opportunity to employees and workers. By promoting open and frank communication between management and workers to express their opinions and suggestions and respond effectively to their various needs in a fair and effective manner, thus enhancing their confidence.</p> Hayder Ali Kadhim Alfatlawi Wasan Khifah Abdulridha Alsaedi Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 532 559 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.220 The impact of the company's life cycle on the asymmetric cost behavior pattern and its reflection on the capital structure https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/244 <p>Our current research aims to demonstrate the impact of the company’s life cycle on the capital structure directly or through the mediation of the asymmetric cost behavior pattern by applying it to a sample of banks listed on the Iraq Stock Exchange, which included 9 banks for the period (2011-2022). The variables were measured in a quantitative manner, as the independent variable, the company’s life cycle, was measured through the positive and negative signals of operating cash flows and investment financing using five stages, namely (launch, growth, maturity, fluctuation, and decline) and analyzed. As for the intermediate variable, asymmetric cost behavior, it was measured through a model. (BBCM adjusted for two periods and the dependent variable, capital structure, was measured through total equity/total assets and total liabilities/total assets. And using regression analysis using the statistical program (SPSS). The results showed that there is a statistically significant effect of the company’s life cycle in the pattern Asymmetric cost behavior. There is a statistically significant effect of the company's life cycle on the capital structure. There is a statistically significant effect of the asymmetric cost behavior pattern on the capital structure. In addition, the asymmetric cost behavior pattern partially mediates the effect of the company's life cycle on Capital Structure Researchers recommend that researchers should try to conduct the same research on companies other than the banking sector or in other countries to determine whether the company’s life cycle is the same, especially since the information obtained from research results from other countries would help shed light On the corporate life cycle.</p> bashaer Khudhair Abbas Alkhafaji Riyam Taqi Mohammed Karrar Saleem Hameedi Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 560 584 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.244 ممارسات الإدارة البيئية و اثرها على تحقيق التنمية المستدامة دراسة حاجة في محطة كهرباء النجيبية https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/257 <p>تهدف الدراسة إلى التعرف على أثر ممارسات الإدارة البيئية في تحقيق التنمية المستدامة، تمثلت ممارسات الإدارة البيئية في (إعادة تدوير النفايات، والسياسة البيئية، وإنتاج التنظيف) والتنمية المستدامة في (البعد الاقتصادي، والبعد الاجتماعي، والبعد البيئي). ولتحقيق هدف الدراسة تم تحليل 30 استبانة وزعت على المدراء في محطة كهرباء النجيبية، وباستخدام SPSS توصلت الدراسة إلى استنتاجات أهمها وجود علاقة بين الإدارة البيئية والتنمية المستدامة، وأوصت الدراسة بضرورة الاهتمام بالإدارة البيئية وأنشطتها لما لها من أثر كبير في تحسين التنمية المستدامة.</p> Ghufran Alsaker Fatima Ali Majeed Alzeaer Ruaa mahdi M.saleh aljazaary Copyright (c) 2024 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 4 02 585 604 10.55165/wjfsar.v4i02.257