Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs <p><strong>Wisdom Journal For Studies &amp; Research (WJFSAR)</strong> is an international scientific journal specialized in the humanities, social sciences and literature. It is a refereed journal, issued by the University and the Institute of Justice and Wisdom in the United States of America.</p> <p><strong> ISSN print/ 2769-1926 ISSN online/ 2769-1934</strong></p> <p>It aims to present diverse and emerging ideas and issues within its specialization. It is published 4 times a year (March-June-September). -December), publishes research in Arabic, English and French, and also publishes works completed within the framework of research projects and international conferences, and it is supervised by the competent scientific body.</p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="3">Note that the research of this journal holds the <strong>DOI CROSSREF Digital Object Identifier, it is classified in Google Scholar,</strong>as it allows</span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3"> open and direct access to</span></span> <span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="3"> its contents from the principle of making scientific research available free to the public from the journal's website, and it has a LOCKSS license and a CLOCKSS license</span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3">To store and distribute Journal content.</span></span></p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3">The journal is also based on the Open Journal Systems (OJS), an open source software application for scholarly journals, which is used by more than 25,000 worldwide. Open access can increase a journal's readership and contribute to the global public good</span></span></p> <p>The refereed international scientific journal is published 4 times a year regularly according to a fixed schedule, <span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="1">In addition to 4 issues of conferences and scientific events supposed per year.</span></span></p> <p><strong>Fixed schedule for issuing regular magazine issues in each annual volume</strong></p> <table width="335"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>Publishing month</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p><strong>N</strong><strong>umber</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>month 03</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p>number 01</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>month 06</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p>number 02</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>month 09</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p>number 03</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="220"> <p><strong>month 12</strong></p> </td> <td width="115"> <p>number 04</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="13"><strong>Publication Fee</strong>:</span></span></p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="13">The publishing fee is $150</span></span></p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="4" data-number-of-phrases="13">An electronic copy shall be sent to the researcher after each issue, and a hard copy upon request, provided that the researcher bears the costs of shipping and printing.</span></span></p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="6" data-number-of-phrases="13"><strong>Fee payment system</strong>:</span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="8" data-number-of-phrases="13">Publication fees are paid through</span></span></p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="10" data-number-of-phrases="13">Transfer system through Western Union / MoneyGram*</span></span></p> <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="10" data-number-of-phrases="13">*transfers</span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="12" data-number-of-phrases="13">International bank account transfer system</span></span></p> جامعة ومعهد العدالة والحكمة University and Institute Of Justice and Wisdom en-US Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2769-1926 Standardization of Tests in Psychological and Educational research https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/102 <p>Through our research we defined the process of Standardization psychological and educational tests in scientific research. And We have come to confirm the necessity of carrying out this process in scientific research; Because of its importance in verifying the validity of the test as a tool for measurement and diagnosis later, whether at the psychological or educational level<em>.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; We were also indicated Some differences in the Standardization process between psychological and educational tests. Assuming that Each type measures one of the characteristics of the Examined.</p> عواطف بوقرة Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 18 34 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.102 Constructing educational curriculum and its components - Arabic language curricula as a model - https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/108 <p>The outset was the need to better understand the teaching/learning process by its leaders with its poles represented by the teacher, the learner, and the teaching material. the relationship between each element and the effect each has on the other.</p> <p>"CURRICULUM" is considered to be one of the most important fields concerned by the challenges of linguistic education, global and undivided, in terms of defining the general policy of language knowledge, the nature of its organization, its relations with teachers, the modalities of its acquisition, how to activate it, and the expected difficulties.It provides the information and all the data necessary for planning according to needs and evaluation, and the emphasis is on the methodologies needed to acquire the content, build and develop models of understanding of learning.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>educational system/ Curriculum/ Evaluation/ Learning/ Methods/ Acquisition / Content</p> <p>The outset was the need to better understand the teaching/learning process by its leaders with its poles represented by the teacher, the learner, and the teaching material. the relationship between each element and the effect each has on the other.</p> <p>"CURRICULUM" is considered to be one of the most important fields concerned by the challenges of linguistic education, global and undivided, in terms of defining the general policy of language knowledge, the nature of its organization, its relations with teachers, the modalities of its acquisition, how to activate it, and the expected difficulties.It provides the information and all the data necessary for planning according to needs and evaluation, and the emphasis is on the methodologies needed to acquire the content, build and develop models of understanding of learning.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>educational system/ Curriculum/ Evaluation/ Learning/ Methods/ Acquisition / Content</p> <p>The outset was the need to better understand the teaching/learning process by its leaders with its poles represented by the teacher, the learner, and the teaching material. the relationship between each element and the effect each has on the other.</p> <p>"CURRICULUM" is considered to be one of the most important fields concerned by the challenges of linguistic education, global and undivided, in terms of defining the general policy of language knowledge, the nature of its organization, its relations with teachers, the modalities of its acquisition, how to activate it, and the expected difficulties.It provides the information and all the data necessary for planning according to needs and evaluation, and the emphasis is on the methodologies needed to acquire the content, build and develop models of understanding of learning.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>educational system/ Curriculum/ Evaluation/ Learning/ Methods/ Acquisition / Contentر</p> وريدة أغادير Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 35 54 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.108 Spatial variation of smoking phenomenon in Hawija city for the year 2021 https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/106 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; There is a noticeable increase in the number of smokers, as this research aims to determine the number of smokers in the city of Hawija and their spatial distribution in various residential neighborhoods and to identify the causes of this phenomenon, its exacerbation and its spread among different age groups, and knowledge of the health, economic, social and environmental damages and effects it has on the city’s residents, in addition to To know the volumes of smoking of children under (15 years), which has taken a large spread in recent times. The number of smokers in the city of Hawija reached 6629, which represents 14 percent of the city’s total population, as this phenomenon is concentrated in males more than females, and there are many variables that led to the variation of smoking such as unemployment, psychological conditions, parental smoking, divorce and widowhood, Street children and smoking friends, in the absence of family and school control. The study found the cost of cigarettes for smokers in the city of Hawija, which amounted to more than (1.1) billion Iraqi dinars for the year 2020, which is a large amount that is offset by the cost of treatment for people suffering from diseases as a result of this phenomenon and the cleanliness of the environment.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <u>Keywords:</u>&nbsp; Smoking, development, population growth, urbanization</p> raed raed حمد علي احمد الجبوري عصام يحيى عزيز الجبوري Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 55 81 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.106 Prophet Muhammad etiquette https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/95 <p>It has become a given in our time that Western society is one of the most advanced societies in morals and dealing with others or what they call etiquette, and the media always sheds light on their etiquette in dealing with men with men, or in men’s dealings with women, or even with animals, and they claim that they are Its makers and inventors, forgetting and ignoring that the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, preceded them in this and surpassed them more than a thousand years ago, and his fragrant biography is the best witness to this; Therefore, the researcher saw shedding light on highlighting the Prophet’s etiquette and comparing it with Western etiquette, through the inductive approach: to collect and follow the ideas and rulings related to morals in the honorable hadiths and relevant Islamic references and the analytical approach to analyze hadith texts contained in hadith books and their explanations to know the opinions of scholars about the standards of morality in the Sunnah The Prophet and the comparative approach through the comparison between the morals of Muslims and the morals of the West, through the formulation of variables that contain points of similarity and difference, and one of the results of this research is that Islamic values ​​are balanced, combining the thing and its counterpart in consistency and consistency without exaggeration, and Islamic values ​​are characterized by realism, and the reader The one who examines the biography of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, sees that he is the most perfect husband and the best in character among all husbands, and that he is a kind father, loyal friend, and good role model.</p> غصنه حمد متعب العامري Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 82 117 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.95 The structure of the story according to Sayyid Qutb https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/109 <p>The Arab story has gone through several stages and is seeking to form its distinguished discourse, whether at the artistic or semantic level, and it has thus been able to impose itself in the Arab literary arena and achieve artistic maturity and awareness, after poetry dominated the literary arts for a period of time. The credit for this is due to a number of factors, including the spread of the press and translation with Napoleon’s campaign against Egypt and its profound impact on the renaissance of this art. The writers' interest in this art is remarkable, and the story has been able, since its appearance, to form a creative phenomenon that was able to impose its presence in modern and contemporary literature at the hands of a group of storytellers and novelists who were able to raise it to the highest levels. Many of us know Sayyid Qutb as the conscious politician, the leading Islamic thinker and the martyred preacher, but he is ignorant of Sayyid the “talented writer.” Sayyid Qutb had a strong presence in the world of the story with three books representing each one. Including a trend of contemporary literary trends.</p> Samira Chadli Leila Rouissat Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 118 136 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.109 An Analysis of Cultural Patterns in Al-Mutanabbi’s Famous Poem لِهَذا اليَومِ بَعدَ غَدٍ أَريجٍ “From today, there will be a pleasant tomorrow” from Cultural Criticism Perspective https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/104 <p>Abstract</p> <p>Cultural patterns constitute the most prominent analytical term in cultural criticism. They hypothesise that literary texts consist of implicit cultural patterns that hide behind the aesthetics of literary texts and their apparent meanings. Cultural patterns reveal the relationship between text and culture and aim to identify some systematic cultural criticism tools, such as metonymy, cultural pun, double author, and cultural sentence. This research provides a theoretical model that reveals the aesthetics of cultural patterns in one Al-Mutanabbi’s famous poem <em>لِهَذا اليَومِ بَعدَ غَدٍ أَريجٍ</em> (From today, there will be a pleasant tomorrow). This poem provides us with an applicable model for researching cultural criticism theory. It demonstrates some cultural patterns that are implicitly used by Al-Mutanabbi that will help us to re-understand and re-analyze this poem from the cultural criticism perspective.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> الدكتور عمر عبدالله نايف العنبر Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 137 160 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.104 Effects of Contracting by Electronic Agent https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/99 <p>Although the use of artificial intelligence software in e-commerce improves commercial transactions, it raises many difficulties, especially with regard to responsibility for the work of these programs and the appropriateness of current legislation and its ability to absorb the unique characteristics of this technology.</p> <p>Where the topic of our research paper revolves around the electronic agent in concluding e-commerce contracts, which is a topic of great importance to virtual stores that employ this technology in order to accommodate the huge amount of consumer needs. The jurisprudence was divided regarding determining the legal nature of this program, based on the existence of an agency contract between the user and the agent, and marginalizing its role as a mere communication tool in the hands of the user.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> عبد العالي حفظ الله brahim bouamra Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 161 185 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.99 Law is a social phenomenon (there is no society without law): Study in the light of Algerian law https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/100 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Legal sciences constitute one of the most important sciences whose rules have been formed and nurtured with the existence of man, as he is a living being who needs law because it is a social phenomenon. There is no room for living in a society that is not governed by a law that regulates its various human, social, moral, and administrative relations...etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Talking about law as a social phenomenon is manifested through the method of forming legal rules that are the product of a primitive society until they turned into legal rules enshrined in the various constitutions of countries and their internal laws, noting that each sovereign state has the right to set laws that it sees as serving the community and protecting its rights. while respecting the international dimension.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Returning to Algerian law, we note that it is inspired by the customs and traditions of Algerian society, which took root and grew up until the competent authority, intervened to establish official legal rules that are binding in application under penalty of penalty.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Through this research paper, we seek to shed light on the importance of the legal base in society and its role in protecting people’s rights and freedoms, while highlighting the role of legalization in establishing general and abstract legal rules that are binding on the application by the addressees, with the study focusing on the role of positive law in protecting rights and freedoms.In light of the Algerian legislation.</p> فهيمة بلول فتيحة مقداد Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 186 207 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.100 The contrastive approach and linguistic interference in written production in the teaching of French as a foreign language to French speakers “ The case of Libyan learners ” https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/111 <p><strong>Abstract</strong> <strong>: </strong></p> <p>The mistakes that FLE learners make , in our French departments in Libya ,</p> <p>in an involuntary way when they use the word from the mother&nbsp; tongue&nbsp;</p> <p>( Arabic ) to the French language .Our research addresses the comparison</p> <p>between the syntactic characteristics and semantics of two&nbsp; languages ,</p> <p>(French –Arabic ) .On the other hand , we will study the equivalence</p> <p>when they translate ; in particular Libya is non – French –speaking country</p> <p>French remains the foreign language .The difference between the two</p> <p>cultures is very clear .It is not always easy to characterize the specisicity of&nbsp;</p> <p>two different languages and also are not of the same origin so the&nbsp; method&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>of contractive and analytical linguistics allows us to&nbsp; describe the properties</p> <p>of&nbsp; the&nbsp; languages .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> samiha sarar Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 208 222 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.111 The management of local authorities between autonomy and administrative control: a case study https://uojawjournals.education/index.php/jwrs/article/view/101 <p><strong><u>Summary</u></strong><strong>:</strong></p> <p><strong>As a principle guaranteed by the Constitution, the autonomy of local and regional authorities depends heavily on administrative control and financial autonomy to be active actors in the economic and social life of the country. Similarly, the financial autonomy of the municipalities must not only be analysed from the legal point of view, whereby the latter are called upon to have the capacity to act in determining their revenue and expenditure. It must also be conditioned by a material aspect which consists for these municipalities to hold the effective possession of the financial means enabling them to meet their burdens, because if the financial means of the municipalities are lacking, the attribution of legal personality and the resulting competences becomes a pure fiction.</strong></p> <p><strong><u>Keywords</u></strong><strong>:</strong></p> <p><strong>Autonomy of local authorities, financial autonomy, administrative control, free administration.</strong></p> MOHAMMED ELBOUBEKRI Copyright (c) 2022 Wisdom Journal For Studies & Research 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 3 223 244 10.55165/wjfsar.v2i3.101